Abbreviations, Signs 

& Publications Referred to

ALD = Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford unless otherwise indicated.
            See Hornby etc at 11.2  below.

CAL(D)  Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

CEPD Cambridge EPD (qv)

CGB = Conspicuous (ie 'posh') General British (pronunciation)

CGP(E) = Cruttenden's (revisions of) Gimson's  Pronunciation of English (1994...2014)

CID = Cambridge International Dictionary

COD  Concise Oxford Dictionary

CPD = the JWL OUP Concise Pronouncing Dictionary. See §11.2 on this website

EAL = English as an Additional Language

EEL = English as an Extra Language

EFL = As used by writers other than the author of this website this usually has to be taken to

            stand for 'English as a Foreign Language'.

                As employed by the author it is to be taken as ''English as a Further Language'

ELF = English as a Lingua Franca

ELT(J)= English Language Teaching (Journal)

EPD English Pronouncing Dictionary 1917 - 2006

GA = General American (sc English Pronunciation)

GB = General British (sc English Pronunciation)

HHS = Hanks, Patrick & Hodges, F: A Dictionary of Surnames

LDC(E), ELDOCE Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

LPD3 = Longman Dictionary of Pronunciation Wells (1.1990; 2.1908 3.2008) 

MWO See Merriam-WebsterOnline Dictionary


NS = Native Speaker

OALD The Oxford "ALD" (qv)

OBG Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation Olausson, L & Sangster, C 

ODP or ODPCE Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (for Current English) Upton et al.

OED See Murray etc below

pn or pron = pronunciation

QGB ie Quasi General British

RHD See Random House Dictionary below

RDP Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation

TPS Transactions of the Philological Society (of London)

UGB Upper-class General British

Web (3) Webster's Third International Dictionary (1961)

ZAA  Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik


Aside from universally known  symbols the  following signs are employed at various places on this site to indicate the currencies of particular pronunciations of words

˚ placed immediately after a  word's transcription  indicates that it is relatively speaking the sole  pronunciation the word receives
˃ or > similarly placed indicates that it is the most frequently occurring pronunciation of the word it follows  but that there are others which may be termed subvariants as opposed to approximately equally common alternants which may be termed co-variants
˂ or < indicates that the pronunciation is not considered to be the most frequent one of the word in question

 Publications Referred to

other than by JWL for which see Personal ie §10.2 on this website